Lesson 5: Prepositions and Conjunctions
©MM Pollard December, 2012

Lesson 5 – our last lesson. I value your opinions. Would you have taken this workshop if I hadn’t offered it for free?

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On with the lesson…
A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word.
Example: My mother took the photographs on the wall.
On is a preposition that shows a relationship between photographs and wall. On our wall is a prepositional phrase made up of the preposition on and the noun wall, the object of the preposition. Within the sentence the prepositional phrases acts as an adjective describing the noun photographs.

Some prepositions are made up of more than one word.
Examples: According to Mrs. Evans, my mother is a very good photographer. – preposition – according to, prepositional phrase – according to Mrs. Evans, object of the preposition – Mrs. Evans
My father was first attracted to my mom because of her talent. – preposition – because of, prepositional phrase – because of her talent, objection of the preposition – talent

Here are some common prepositions.
About Behind For Over
Above Below From Past
Across Beside In Through
After Between Inside Throughout
Against Beyond Into To
Among By Near Toward
Around Down Of Under
At During Off Up
Before Except On With

Here are some common multi-word prepositions.

According to By means of In regard to Next to
Aside from In addition to In spite of On account of
Because of In front of Instead of Prior to

While I’m giving you lists, here are three lists of conjunctions.
Coordinating conjunctions join words or groups of words that are similar
For And Nor But Or Yet So – FANBOYS
Examples follow lists.

Correlative conjunctions come in pairs. Many writers avoid them to reduce the word count in their writing.
Both… and
Not only … but also
Not… but
Either… or
Neither… nor
Whether… or
As… as
Examples follow lists.

Subordinate conjunctions are used to join dependent and independent clauses.
After Even though Unless
Although If Until
As In order that When
As if Since Whenever
As long as So that Where
Because Than Wherever
before Though while

Examples follow lists.

Another list – conjunctive adverbs: these are words that are used to create complex relationships between ideas.
Moreover, however, therefore, as a result, consequently, nevertheless, besides

Examples of coordinate conjunctions in sentences:
The boys and girls played in the park.
Sarah and Jennie played on the swings, but not Eddie.
Kathy nor Mary liked to go too fast on the merry-go-round.
Andy wanted to swing, so he told Sarah that her mom was here to pick her up.
Sarah knew that Andy lied to get his way, yet she looked for her mom anyway.
Andy is in time-out now, for it is wrong to tell a lie.

Examples of correlative conjunctions in sentences:
Karen loved not only watching old movies, but she also loved researching how they were produced.
Both Karen and Frank shared a love for old movies.
Neither her sister nor his brother understood their fascination with grainy silent pictures.

Examples of subordinate conjunctions in sentences:
--Unless you help me, I won’t finish this experiment during this period.
--I can’t help you because I’m too busy.
--Since I helped you with your science project when you needed help, don’t you think you should help me now?

--I would help you if I weren’t so busy.

--Even though you look busy, I know you’re just playing Angry Birds on your phone.

Examples of conjunctive adverbs in sentences:
Betty didn’t take the flu shot; consequently, she spent a miserable week in bed with chills and fever.
I want to believe you; however, I know how easily you lie.

This information just brushes the surface of these two parts of speech, but anything more is FAR from BASIC.

Now you try it. Go to these sites and complete the exercises on prepositions and conjunctions listed below. Post your results and questions on the Lesson 5 homework and questions thread. The two exercises are due Saturday, midnight, PDT.

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/prepositions.htm -- about midway down the page, you can click on a link to a list of prepositions that is easy to print out.

Exercise on prepositions: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/preposition_quiz2.htm#

Exercise on conjunctions:

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