Gothic/horror novels arose in the 19th century when artists were fascinated with ancient (esp. Western European Medieval)times. This included beliefs in evil spirits, devils, mysterious beings, etc. The emphasis was on deep feelings, highly overwrought emotions, spirituality of all kinds
Gothic (Western Eurpoean Medieval)architecture included huge, towering buildings with spires and steeple,i.e. cathedrals, abbeys, etc. These featured many other elements (also intended to stir the emotions) that drew the eyes upward towards God.
This is a very cursory, thus inadequate, explanation, but it will give you some idea I hope.
p.s. Novels were first called "Romances" And the word "Novel" refers to the fact that before the 19th century there just wasn't much written in that style--that it was "new" or novel.
This whole topic is an interesting one.